This YouTube video by Prof. Dessler describes a different way of explaining how the greenhouse effect operates.
There are a lot of on-line resources that demonstrate simple climate physics. Steve Easterbrook has compiled a very useful list of them on his blog.
For the ambitious among you, you can download and run a full-blown research-grade climate model. See this webpage for more information.
The models described in this chapter are of a class known as energy-balance models. For a more mathematical discussion of these models, check out this classic review paper: North, G. R., R. F. Cahalan, and J. A. Coakley Jr. (1981), Energy balance climate models, Rev. Geophys., 19(1), 91–121, doi:10.1029/RG019i001p00091.